电动车仿生铝防撞梁耐撞性设计

作者:张友国;宋小文;李卓富;杨飞飞; 刊名:汽车工程学报 上传者:王霞

【摘要】利用仿生结构改变两座电动汽车铝合金前防撞横梁的截面形状,以提升电动汽车正面碰撞下的耐撞性。在Hypermesh平台上建立了前防撞梁全宽正面碰撞力学模型和防撞横梁的三点弯曲模型,对比了口字形、梯度形、蜗牛壳形、蜘蛛网形和胚胎球形5种截形防撞横梁的正面碰撞仿真结果及静态弯曲刚度。轻量化、吸能量、B柱加速度、弯曲刚度是衡量仿生防撞梁耐撞性能的4个关键指标。结果表明,具有胚胎球形截面的防撞横梁耐撞性更好。在胚胎球形截面对照方面,研究了不同胚胎球形数量和布置对碰撞仿真结果的影响,得出具有两个胚胎球形截面的防撞横梁耐撞性最优。通过采用两个球形防撞横梁的不同料厚组合,分析了料厚对碰撞结果的影响。

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第 2 期 089张友国 等:电动车仿生铝防撞梁耐撞性设计 汽车工程学报 Chinese Journal of Automotive Engineering Crashworthiness Design of Bio-Inspired Al-Beams for Electric Vehicles ZHANG Youguo1,SONG Xiaowen2,LI Zhuofu3,YANG Feifei3 (1. Aiways Motor,Shanghai 201821,China;2. Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310058,China; 3. Leap Motor,Hangzhou 310051,China) Abstract:The bionic-inspired Al-beams were used in the two-seat electric vehicle to improve crash-worthiness. Through Hypermesh,a frontal crash model and a three-point bending model were established and the simulation results were compared for the Al-beams with the square-shaped,the wedge-shaped, the snail-shell-shaped,the spider-web-shaped and the multiple-near-spherical-shaped cross sections. The lightweight,energy absorption,B-pillar acceleration and bending stiffness were four indicators of crashworthiness. The results show that the beam with the multiple-near-spherical-shaped cross section have a better performance. Then,based on such a cross section,the effects of different sphere numbers and arrangements were studied. The results indicate the cross section with two spheres is optimal for crashworthiness. Finally,based on the two-sphere cross section,the influence of different beam thicknesses on crashworthiness were analyzed. Keywords:crashworthiness;bionic section;Al-beam;multi-objective optimization 电动车仿生铝防撞梁耐撞性设计 摘 要:利用仿生结构改变两座电动汽车铝合金前防撞横梁的截面形状,以提升电动汽车正面碰撞下的耐撞性。在 Hypermesh平台上建立了前防撞梁全宽正面碰撞力学模型和防撞横梁的三点弯曲模型,对比了口字形、梯度形、蜗牛壳形、蜘蛛网形和胚胎球形 5 种截形防撞横梁的正面碰撞仿真结果及

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